AD Classics Arts United Center Louis Kahn

2018-04-16 06:00
 © Jeffery Johnson
(C)Jeffery Johnson
Kahn’s original proposal encompassed a philharmonic hall, art school, gallery and civic theatre bound together in a large complex. Yet, troubles began early in the project as the architect’s 20 million dollar estimate dwarfed the expected 2.5 million dollar cost of the Fine Arts Center.
 © Jeffery Johnson
(C)Jeffery Johnson
From 1961 to 1964, while also completing the Richards Medical Center at the University of Pennsylvania, Kahn and his office worked a series of schemes for the expansive project. A collection of plaster models held by MoMA reveal Kahn’s intention to arrive at a single entrance for all activities—accessed either by foot or car. “I think when all these activities come together, there is a kind of thing that is created,” Kahn said. “They surely function in themselves but when they come together there is something new.” [1] These interests in the relationally of building and program would, like a majority of the project, bow to economics. The mundane realities of parking meant Kahn’s intention for an elevated parking tower as part of the complex would vanish in later study models.
 © Jeffery Johnson
(C)Jeffery Johnson
 © Jeffery Johnson
(C)Jeffery Johnson
A more developed scheme appears to have been settled around 1964. A site plan reveals a campus of nine buildings orbiting around central courts and gardens. In this concept, the Philharmonic Hall was linked to the Theater of Performing Arts by an octagonal Philharmonic Annex bridging the spaces. A central courtyard connected these theatres to the Historical Museum, Art Museum, Reception Centre, and Amphitheatre while the School of Art occupied four separate structures at the edge of the site.[2]
 © Jeffery Johnson
(C)Jeffery Johnson
However, by 1964 funding for the project was scarce. His plans for the Fine Arts Center were put on hold until 1966 when attention turned from the larger complex to the design of the Theatre of Performing Arts. Developed while finishing the Kimbell Art Museum in Fort Worth, Texas, Kahn’s concept for the articulated double-structure hinged on the notion of a violin and its case, or, as he described, a “violin inside the violin case.” The concrete “violin,” with its faceted panels, would represent the inner structure of the hall while the brick exterior, housing lobbies and adjacent spaces, would act as the violin case entirely separate from the contents within.[3]
 © Jeffery Johnson
(C)Jeffery Johnson
这一概念与其说是隐喻,不如说是语用。由于工地毗邻铁路线,剧院和音乐厅的实际隔音和隔音是建筑师最关心的问题。建筑内建筑的概念也建立在卡恩对古典遗迹的兴趣之上,并出现在一个并行的项目中:新罕布什尔州的菲利普斯埃克塞特图书馆(Phillips Exeter Library),它被设想为三个类似废墟的“圆环”。
This concept was less metaphoric than pragmatic. As the site was adjacent to railway lines, the physical as well as acoustic separation of the theatre and concert hall was a primary concern for the architect. This notion of a building-within-a-building also builds on Kahn’s interest in classical ruins and appears in a concurrent project: the Phillips Exeter Library in New Hampshire, conceived as three “rings” of ruin-like structures.[4]
The essence of the theatre also captivated Kahn during the course of the project—both in what it meant for the audience as well as the performers themselves. Cursory spaces for rehearsal and preparation were conceived as secular actors’ chapels in the lineage of the classical structures at Delphi where performers could engage with their craft.
 © Jeffery Johnson
(C)Jeffery Johnson
For the audience, the experience was to be more entrancing than reflective. “When you hear the familiar strains of the Fifth Symphony, it is like a relative entering the room whom you haven't seen in a long time, and you realize for the first time that his eyes are blue,” Kahn once said. [5] A series of sketches produced between 1966 and 1968 show an ongoing struggle to negotiate form, space, acoustics, sightless, and vantage points. Thus, the concrete “violin” was conceived as an inhabitable instrument—one that allowed viewers to both see and feel as well as engage with the familiar and the foreign.[6]
 © Jeffery Johnson
(C)Jeffery Johnson
Aside from the concrete interior, perhaps the most striking element of project is the anthropomorphic facade. Two broad brick arches and the nibbed beams coupled with the recessed entranceway give the appearance of a mask or face, where the arches represent the eyes while the beams suggest the nose above the entranceway or mouth. The focus on the importance of this single entrance to the structure was a hold-over from the original masterplan, where Kahn had wanted to provide a clearly delineated procession to reveal the life of the building. The two eye-like arches of the facade frame the second floor assembly and gathering spaces.[7]
 Exterior Elevations
By the summer of 1970, Kahn’s office had completed the working drawings for the theatre, and construction proceeded shortly after. In the end, only the Theatre of Performing Arts was completed out of the nine proposed buildings for the Fine Arts Center of Fort Wayne. The theatre was officially inaugurated in 1973, a year before Kahn’s death in 1974.[8]
最终,对于卡恩来说,演艺剧院相对来说是令人失望的,因为它只代表了最初计划的一个影子,并且背叛了他对相互关系建筑的设想。“形式是处理不可分割的部分,”卡恩说。“如果你拿走一件东西,你就没有全部的东西,没有什么能真正完全地对人们想要接受的东西负责,除非它的所有部分都在一起。”[9]正如约瑟夫·赖克特(Joseph Rykwert)评论的那样,很难相信外表上那张引人注目的脸是个意外。[10]相反,它仍然是谈判的持久证据,而且常常令建筑的现实令人沮丧。
Ultimately, the Theater of Performing Arts was relatively disappointing for Kahn as it represented only a shadow of the original plan and betrayed his vision for an architecture of interrelations. “Form is that which deals with inseparable parts,” said Kahn. “If you take one thing away, you don’t have the whole thing, and nothing is ever really fully answerable to that which man wants to accept as part of his way of life unless all its parts are together.”[9] As Joseph Rykwert comments, it's hard to believe that the striking face on the facade was an accident.[10] Instead, it remains a lasting testament to the negotiations and often frustrating realities of making architecture.
建筑师Louis Kahn Location 303E Main St,FortWayne,in 46802,美国助理建筑师T.Richard Shoaff结构工程师Harry Palmbaum机械/电气工程师Fred S.Dubin Associates声学工程师Cyril M.Harris剧院顾问George C.Izenour Associates Client Art Foundation,1973年福特韦恩项目年照片Jeffery Johnson
Architects Louis Kahn Location 303 E Main St, Fort Wayne, IN 46802, United States Associate Architect T. Richard Shoaff Structural Engineer Harry Palmbaum Mechanical/Electrical Engineer Fred S. Dubin Associates Acoustical Engineer Dr. Cyril M. Harris Theatre Consultant George C. Izenour Associates Client Fine Art Foundation, Fort Wayne Project Year 1973 Photographs Jeffery Johnson
[1]Heinz Ronner,Sharad Jhaveri和Alessandro Vasella,Louis I.Kahn:1935-74年全集(Boulder:West View Press,1977),205。[2]同上,210。[3]Jospeh Rykwert,Louis Kahn(纽约,Harry N.Abrams Inc.,2001年),第58页。[4]文森特·斯卡利,“路易·卡恩和罗马废墟”,“现代博物馆12”(1992年夏季):1-13页。[5]卡洛斯·布里伦堡,“不可能采访路易·I·卡恩”,“40炸弹”(1992年夏季):17。[6]Ronner,Jhaveri和Vesella,215。[7]Jack Perry Brown,Louis Kahn in the中西部(芝加哥:芝加哥艺术学院,1989年),第13页。[8]Rykert,58岁。[9]Ronner,Jhaveri和Vesella,206。[10]Rykert,58岁。
[1] Heinz Ronner, Sharad Jhaveri and Alessandro Vasella, Louis I. Kahn: Complete Works 1935-74 (Boulder: West View Press, 1977), 205. [2] Ibid, 210. [3] Jospeh Rykwert, Louis Kahn (New York, Harry N. Abrams Inc., 2001), 58. [4] Vincent Scully, “Louis Kahn and the Ruins of Rome,” MoMA 12 (Summer 1992): 1-13. [5] Carlos Brillembourg, “An Impossible Interview with Louis I. Kahn,” BOMB 40 (Summer 1992): 17. [6] Ronner, Jhaveri and Vesella, 215. [7] Jack Perry Brown, Louis Kahn in the Midwest (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 1989), 13. [8] Rykwert, 58. [9] Ronner, Jhaveri and Vesella, 206. [10] Rykwert, 58.





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