How to define originality, as examined through Bauhaus works 如何定义创意,通过包浩斯作品进行检验。

2019-09-11 18:03
Exhibition view ‘Original Bauhaus’, installation by Renate Buser. Photography: Catrin Schmitt
In a year of seemingly never-ending Bauhaus-related events marking the school’s 100-year- anniversary, ‘Original Bauhaus’, a new exhibition at the Berlinische Galerie in Berlin manages not only to hold its own but stand out for its refreshing approach.

在这看似永无止境的鲍豪斯相关活动的一年里,“原始包豪斯”在柏林加莱丽博物馆举办,不仅举办了自己的展览,而且以其令人耳目一新的方式脱颖而出。
Instead of being organised chronologically or historically, it revolves around 14 case studies (one for each year of the movement’s short existence in Germany between 1919 and 1933) and explores them through heretofore unseen materials, both originals and reproductions, as well as new artworks by the likes of Thomas Ruff and Thomas Demand.

它不是按时间顺序或历史顺序组织的,而是围绕着14个案例研究(1919至1933年期间该运动在德国短暂存在期间每年一次),并通过迄今未见的材料,包括原作和复制品,以及托马斯·拉夫和托马斯·需求等人的新艺术品,对这些案例进行探索。
‘Reproductions, re-issues and remakes have made the Bauhaus the 20th century’s most influential school of architecture, design and art,’ explains exhibition curator Nina Wiedemeyer. By combining all of these together, the exhibition cleverly begs the question: what is an original?

展览策展人尼娜·威德迈尔解释说:“复制品、翻版和翻拍使鲍豪斯成为20世纪最具影响力的建筑、设计和艺术流派。”通过将所有这些结合在一起,展览巧妙地回避了一个问题:什么是原创?
Junggesellenschrank by hand (detail), by Sigurd Larsen, 2019, ‘Original Bauhaus’ © Sigurd Larsen

(细节),西格尔德·拉森,2019年,“原始包豪斯”(原著)(西格德·拉森)
Accordingly, one of the case studies is Marianne Braun’s geometric tea infuser, a piece created as a prototype and intended for mass production but that ultimately always remained a one-off and was only ever made by hand. Seven of the (eight existing) original teapots are displayed together for the first time and it’s intriguing to see the small differences in each one.

因此,其中一个案例是玛丽安·布劳恩的几何图形茶壶,它是作为原型创造出来的,用于大规模生产,但最终仍然是一次性的,而且只有手工制作。八个现存的茶壶中有七个是第一次一起展示的,看到每个茶壶之间的细微差别是很有趣的。
Another looks at László Moholy-Nagy’s 1922 text Production – Reproduction and his experimentation, together with Lucia Moholy, with camera-less photography and projecting images directly on to photo paper. Moholy wasn’t interested in the original but rather the the reproduction of the original created through repro-photography, or what he called ‘photograms’.

另一个研究对象是纳吉1922年的文本制作“复制”和他的实验,以及露西娅·莫圣,用相机-少拍一些照片,把图像直接投射到照片纸上。摩圣对原作并不感兴趣,而是对通过复制摄影或他所谓的“照片”所创造的原作的复制感兴趣。
Tea infuser (MT 49), by Marianne Brandt, 1924 Bauhaus-Archiv Berlin, Photography: Gunter Lepkowski © VG Bild-Kunst Bonn

由MariAnneBrandt,1924Bahaus-ArchiverBerlin,摄影:GunterLekowski,VGBild-Kunst波恩
Perhaps most striking is the section devoted to the famous Bauhaus Stairway painting by Oskar Schlemmer, which depicts several women standing in artful positions on the staircase of the Bauhaus school in Dessau. Here we see what looks like the original but is in fact an almost identical copy painted by Carl Schlemmer (Oskar’s brother) in 1958 some 26 years after the original was painted and 15 years Oskar’s death. Wiedemeyer explains that because the original had become a part of MoMA’s permanent collection in the 1940s, the family presumably missed having the painting and so asked Carl to paint another one. ‘If you looked at it and didn’t know it was a copy you would say you were looking at the real thing.’

也许最引人注目的是 Oskar Schlemmer 致力于著名的 Bauhaus Stairway 绘画的那一节,它描绘了几名妇女站在德绍 Bauhaus 学校楼梯上的巧妙姿势。 在这里,我们看到了什么看起来像原作,但实际上是一个几乎相同的复制品,由卡尔·施莱默( 奥斯卡的兄弟)在 1958 年,大约 26 年后,原作被画和 15 年奥斯卡的死亡。 维德迈耶解释说,由于原作在 20 世纪 40 年代成为 MoMA 永久收藏的一部分,这家人可能错过了这幅画,所以要求卡尔再画一幅。 ”“如果你看了它,却不知道它是一个副本,你就会说你在看真实的东西。 .
Another beguiling element of the show is the focus on the Bauhaus’ rightly admired ‘preliminary course’. So many Bauhaus exhibitions focus on the furniture and the objects, the big hero figures and names, but here we get to see the more anonymous results of the exercises carried out by the students as part of the famous six-month course.

该剧的另一个吸引人的元素是对鲍豪斯的“正确欣赏的”初步课程“的关注。很多包豪斯展览都集中在家具和物品、英雄人物和名字上,但在这里,我们可以看到学生们在为期六个月的著名课程中所做的练习的匿名结果。
Bauhaus Stairway, by Carl (Casca) Schlemmer, 1958, oil on hardboard, true-to-original copy of Oskar Schlemmer’s Bauhaus Stairway, private property. Photography: Markus Hawlik

鲍豪斯楼梯,卡尔(卡斯卡)施莱默,1958年,石油的硬木板,真正的原版的奥斯卡施莱默的包豪斯楼梯,私人财产。摄影:Markus Hawlik
On view are the results of the ‘colour circle’ exercise carried out under Wassily Kandinsky, or the outcome of the ‘material study’ exercise set by Johannes Itten and László Moholy-Nagy, where students explored textures and material by drawing them and assembling them into sculptures and collages.

人们可以看到在Wassily Kandinsky下进行的“色彩圈”练习的结果,或Johannes Itten和LászlóMori-Nagy提出的“材料研究”的结果,学生们在那里通过绘制纹理和材料并将它们组装成雕塑和拼贴品来探索纹理和材料。
One wall in the space lists the exercises that made up the course and they include poetic tasks such as ‘ice-skating on paper’ and ‘emotion shorthand’, as well as the more practical ‘tangible reproduction of model’ and ‘draw spatial situation’. ‘At a time when art education is always being reduced or even got rid of, we wanted to show how current and relevant these assignments still seem today,’ says Wiedemeyer.

空间中的一堵墙列出了组成这门课程的练习,它们包括诗意的任务,比如“在纸上滑冰”和“情感速记”,以及更实用的“模型的有形再现”和“绘制空间情境”。Wiedemeyer说,在艺术教育一直在减少甚至被淘汰的时候,我们想要展示这些作业的时代性和相关性。
Exercise Colour Circle from Wassily Kandinsky‘s class, by Lothar Lang, Bauhaus-Archiv Berlin. Photography: Markus Hawli

Wassily Kandinsky的班里的练习彩圈,由Lothar lang,Bauhaus-Archiv柏林.摄影:马库斯·霍利
The final element that makes this show different is the interactivity. While many exhibitions claim to do this, few do it properly in practice. Here the curatorial team invited Berlin-based artists’ collective Syntop to create several digital stations where you can work on some of the Bauhaus’ preliminary course exercises.

使这一表现与众不同的最后一个因素是交互性。虽然许多展览声称做到了这一点,但在实践中很少正确地做到这一点。在这里,策展人团队邀请柏林艺术家的集体同步创造几个数字电台,在那里你可以工作的一些鲍豪斯的初步课程练习。
You can draw an animal, create a collage, copy an image or produce a photogram, among other things. If you like what you make you can save it and the image is then projected on to a wall. It’s a straightforward but rewarding part of the exhibition that goes some way in showing just how comprehensive and pioneering the preliminary course was.

可以绘制动物、创建拼贴、复制图像或生成照片图等等。如果您喜欢做什么,可以保存它,然后将图像投影到墙上。这是一个简单但很有价值的展览部分,在展示初步课程是多么的全面和开拓性的过程中,也会有某种程度的进展。
Without being deferential, ‘Original Bauhaus’ manages the rare task of breathing new insights and experiences into a movement that is at times too referenced for its own good. §

“原始包豪斯”在没有恭敬的情况下,管理着一项难得的任务,那就是将新的见解和经验注入一场有时会给自己带来好处的运动。§
由JosefPohl,1930,Bauhaus-ArchiverBerlin/FotoStudioBartsch单身男士衣柜,由JosefPohl,1930,Bahaus-ArchiverBerlin/FotoStudioBartsch,
展览“原始包豪斯”背景:Ursula Mayer,Bauhaus Archive之后:Marcel Breuer主席的未知学生,2006年。摄影:卡特琳施密特展览视图“原始包豪斯”。背景:Ursula Mayer,Bauhaus Archive之后:Marcel Breuer主席的未知学生,2006年。摄影:Catrin Schmitt

                    

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