AD Classics Aarhus City Hall Arne Jacobsen and Erik Møller

2019-01-16 16:30
 
 
 
 
雅各布森(Jacobsen)和莫勒(M Ller)在1937年的比赛中获胜的设计中,有三个主要的聚集区,它们是在以前用作墓地的一个小城市公园(R Dhusparken)中不对称地布置的。在入口处,一个包含主大厅、仪式“婚姻”大厅和市议会会议厅的单位迎接来访者。在一条小街的尽头是最小的街区,一个“问询”的机翼,住在一套温馨但光线充足的房间里,在一个轻轻弯曲的屋顶下。跨越两者之间的距离是比较著名的“哑铃”街区,其中包括大楼的行政办公室(更详细的下文)。
Jacobsen and Møller’s winning design in the 1937 competition features three principal massing blocks, arranged asymmetrically in a small urban park (Rådhusparken) formerly used as a cemetery. At the entrance, a unit containing the main lobby, the ceremonial “marriage” hall, and the city council chambers greets visitors. At the far end against a side street is the smallest block, an “inquiries” wing, housed in an intimate but light-filled set of rooms beneath a gently curved roof. Spanning the distance between them is the more famous “panopticon” block, which contains the building’s administrative offices (more on this below).
Jacobsen and Møller’s winning design in the 1937 competition features three principal massing blocks, arranged asymmetrically in a small urban park (Rådhusparken) formerly used as a cemetery. At the entrance, a unit containing the main lobby, the ceremonial “marriage” hall, and the city council chambers greets visitors. At the far end against a side street is the smallest block, an “inquiries” wing, housed in an intimate but light-filled set of rooms beneath a gently curved roof. Spanning the distance between them is the more famous “panopticon” block, which contains the building’s administrative offices (more on this below).
 
从外部看,这座建筑呈现出一种秩序有序、经济简单的氛围。它的立面由一个由正方形和长方形组成的网格系统组成,它们在几何上非常纯净,看上去与后现代格格不入,这种效果得到了不同倾斜和弯曲的铜屋顶的补充。它是用混凝土和钢铁建造的,外墙上镶有铜细节和6,000平方米的进口挪威大理石。
From the outside, the building projects an aura of regimented order and economic simplicity. Its façade is organized by a grid system of squares and rectangles that are so geometrically pure as to appear anachronistically postmodern, an effect complimented by the varyingly pitched and curved copper roofs. It is constructed of concrete and steel, and the façade is veneered with copper details and 6,000 square meters of imported Norwegian marble.
From the outside, the building projects an aura of regimented order and economic simplicity. Its façade is organized by a grid system of squares and rectangles that are so geometrically pure as to appear anachronistically postmodern, an effect complimented by the varyingly pitched and curved copper roofs. It is constructed of concrete and steel, and the façade is veneered with copper details and 6,000 square meters of imported Norwegian marble.
 © Flickr user Vallø
c Flickr用户Vall;
 
尽管R dhus似乎兼容并蓄,但它可以被恰当地归类为斯堪的纳维亚现代主义的经典范例,这种风格的特征是自然、有机和地域元素与国际公认的现代主义品牌的融合。虽然R dhus包含了在建造过程中在整个欧洲变得越来越流行的硬线、箱状集料和钢筋混凝土结构,但它通过包含曲线、轻质材料和软边来调和这些品质。尤其是在室内,传统的工艺和现代装饰创造了一个温暖而诱人的环境,深深植根于斯堪的纳维亚设计的传统。
Despite its seemingly eclectic combination of elements, the Rådhus can be properly categorized as a classic example of Scandinavian Modernism, a style characterized by the merging of natural, organic, and regional elements with a more internationally recognizable brand of modernism. While the Rådhus contains the hard lines, boxlike massing, and reinforced concrete construction that was becoming increasingly popular throughout Europe during its construction, it tempers these qualities with the inclusion of curves, light materials, and soft edges. This is particularly true in the interiors, where traditional craftsmanship and modern ornamentation create a warm and inviting environment that is deeply rooted in the tradition of Scandinavian design.
Despite its seemingly eclectic combination of elements, the Rådhus can be properly categorized as a classic example of Scandinavian Modernism, a style characterized by the merging of natural, organic, and regional elements with a more internationally recognizable brand of modernism. While the Rådhus contains the hard lines, boxlike massing, and reinforced concrete construction that was becoming increasingly popular throughout Europe during its construction, it tempers these qualities with the inclusion of curves, light materials, and soft edges. This is particularly true in the interiors, where traditional craftsmanship and modern ornamentation create a warm and inviting environment that is deeply rooted in the tradition of Scandinavian design.
 City Council Chambers. Image © Flickr user lafalott
市议会会议厅。图像c Flickr用户lafalott
建筑物的入口是这两种对立条件之间的门槛。游客们从建筑外部的坚硬和简陋的环境进入一个充满非凡细节和有机材料调色板的大厅。在地板上,一个复杂的黑白意大利马赛克推到一个轻轻弯曲的木长凳上.在它的后面,一个壮观的人字形地板,由年代久远的沼泽橡木制成,把参观者拉进一个开放的礼堂,足够容纳600人。一个轻轻弯曲的圆形楼梯到较低的层次,完成了空间的自然效果。
The entrance to the building serves as a threshold between these two opposing conditions. Visitors pass from the hard and austere condition of the building’s exterior into a lobby filled with extraordinary detailings and an organic material palette. On the floor, an intricate black-and-white Italian mosaic pushes up against a gently curved wooden bench. Behind it, a spectacular herringbone floor, made of age-darkened bog oak, pulls the visitors into an open ceremonial hall large enough to accommodate 600 people. A gently curving circular staircase to the lower level completes the natural effect of the space.
The entrance to the building serves as a threshold between these two opposing conditions. Visitors pass from the hard and austere condition of the building’s exterior into a lobby filled with extraordinary detailings and an organic material palette. On the floor, an intricate black-and-white Italian mosaic pushes up against a gently curved wooden bench. Behind it, a spectacular herringbone floor, made of age-darkened bog oak, pulls the visitors into an open ceremonial hall large enough to accommodate 600 people. A gently curving circular staircase to the lower level completes the natural effect of the space.
 Section through the entrance
通过入口的部分
 Material juxtapositions. Image © Flickr user Seier
材料并列。图像C Flickr用户Seie
 Ceremonial "marriage" hall. Image © Flickr user Seier
婚礼礼堂。图像C Flickr用户Seie
 © Flickr user Seier
c Flickr用户Seie
 © Flickr user Seier
c Flickr用户Seie
 © Flickr user Seier
c Flickr用户Seie
这个入口处的顺序让游客来到了泛光区,这是一个主要是功能主义的空间,但在视觉上还是很吸引人的。在大厅的两边,一条狭长的走廊的墙壁上都有小的行政办公室。在每一层地上都有一个裂缝,形成了一个四层的中庭,由天窗照亮,偶尔有一条走道。当然,它的名字来源于这个街区与著名哲学家杰里米·边沁(JeremyBentham)著名的全景监狱设计相似之处,尽管山毛榉木镶板和黄铜固定装置的温暖阻止了更多监狱的比较。
This entrance sequence leads visitors to the panopticon block, a primarily functionalist space that is nonetheless visually arresting. On either side of the hall, small administrative offices line the walls of a long and narrow corridor. A split through each of the aboveground floors creates a four-story atrium, lit by skylight and spanned by the occasional walkway. Its name, of course, comes from the block’s similarities to the famous panopticon jailhouse design by the philosopher Jeremy Bentham, though the warmth of the beech wood paneling and brass fixtures deter any further prison comparisons.
This entrance sequence leads visitors to the panopticon block, a primarily functionalist space that is nonetheless visually arresting. On either side of the hall, small administrative offices line the walls of a long and narrow corridor. A split through each of the aboveground floors creates a four-story atrium, lit by skylight and spanned by the occasional walkway. Its name, of course, comes from the block’s similarities to the famous panopticon jailhouse design by the philosopher Jeremy Bentham, though the warmth of the beech wood paneling and brass fixtures deter any further prison comparisons.
 The panopticon block. Image © Flickr user lalo_pangue
全景图块。图片c Flickr用户Lalo_Pangue
 Courtesy of VisitAarhus.com
VisitAarhus.com的礼貌
 © Flickr user Seier
c Flickr用户Seie
整个建筑的细节和工艺的非凡程度可以归因于雅各布森和莫勒在整个设计和施工过程中所保持的控制量。雅各布森,谁取得了国际声誉,主要作为椅子设计师,与汉斯韦格纳合作,设计了几乎每一件家具放置在建筑物。小细节,如门把手和灯具,都是为R dhus量身定做的。对于建筑内外的信息标志,雅各布森甚至为市政厅设计了一种独特的字体,使这些字体的形状与他想要的整体审美效果相匹配。
The extraordinary level of detail and craftsmanship throughout the building can be attributed to the amount of control Jacobsen and Møller retained over the entire design and construction process. Jacobsen, who achieved international fame primarily as a chair designer, collaborated with Hans Wegner to design nearly every piece of furniture that was placed in the building. Tiny details, such as doorknobs and light fixtures, were each custom-made for the Rådhus. For the informational signs placed outside and within the building, Jacobsen even designed a unique typeface for the city hall so that the shapes of the letters would match his desired overall aesthetic effect.
The extraordinary level of detail and craftsmanship throughout the building can be attributed to the amount of control Jacobsen and Møller retained over the entire design and construction process. Jacobsen, who achieved international fame primarily as a chair designer, collaborated with Hans Wegner to design nearly every piece of furniture that was placed in the building. Tiny details, such as doorknobs and light fixtures, were each custom-made for the Rådhus. For the informational signs placed outside and within the building, Jacobsen even designed a unique typeface for the city hall so that the shapes of the letters would match his desired overall aesthetic effect.
 © Flickr user nnova
c Flickr用户nnova
 © Flickr user nnova
c Flickr用户nnova
 Jacobsen's original typeface for the building
Jacobsen《建筑原始字体》
这座著名的钟楼,已经成为奥胡斯的象征,实际上只是作为一种事后考虑才被添加到R dhus中的。1941年,当该项目即将完工时,当城市居民突然意识到他们的新市政厅将不会有一座塔时,城市居民就会感到恐慌。雅各布森和莫勒最初为他们的设计辩护,指出这座建筑的非标志性简单性唤起了民主精神和易于接近的政府。但具有讽刺意味的是,当公众对钟楼大声疾呼时,设计也变得民主起来,建筑师们也默许了人民的要求。
The famous clock tower, which has become the symbol of Aarhus, was actually added to the Rådhus only as an afterthought. In 1941, when the project was nearing completion, the city’s residents became alarmed upon suddenly realizing that their new city hall would not have a tower. Jacobsen and Møller initially defended their design, pointing out that the un-monumental simplicity of the building evoked the spirit of democracy and accessible government. Ironically, however, when the public clamoring for a clock tower reached a fervor, the design became democratic in process, too, and the architects acquiesced to the people’s demands.
The famous clock tower, which has become the symbol of Aarhus, was actually added to the Rådhus only as an afterthought. In 1941, when the project was nearing completion, the city’s residents became alarmed upon suddenly realizing that their new city hall would not have a tower. Jacobsen and Møller initially defended their design, pointing out that the un-monumental simplicity of the building evoked the spirit of democracy and accessible government. Ironically, however, when the public clamoring for a clock tower reached a fervor, the design became democratic in process, too, and the architects acquiesced to the people’s demands.
结果是一座优雅的60米高的钟楼,它以现代美学的传统形式演奏。建筑师通过将结构和楼板放置在塔外,并展示建筑的核心,创造出超大型烟囱周围脚手架的独特外观,从而扭转了标准的施工实践。他们还将巨大的时钟面置于塔的中心下方,而不是顶部,以便将观众的注意力恢复到控制空间,并避免给建筑物带来一种不想要的巨大感。
What resulted was an elegant, 60 meter-high clock tower that plays upon a traditional form with a modern aesthetic. The architects invert standard construction practices by placing the structure and the floor slabs on the outside of the tower and showing the core of the building within, creating the distinctive appearance of scaffolding around an oversized chimney. They also place the enormous clock faces below the center of the tower rather than at the top in order to return the viewers’ focus to the governing spaces and to avoid giving the building an unwanted sense of monumentality.
What resulted was an elegant, 60 meter-high clock tower that plays upon a traditional form with a modern aesthetic. The architects invert standard construction practices by placing the structure and the floor slabs on the outside of the tower and showing the core of the building within, creating the distinctive appearance of scaffolding around an oversized chimney. They also place the enormous clock faces below the center of the tower rather than at the top in order to return the viewers’ focus to the governing spaces and to avoid giving the building an unwanted sense of monumentality.
 © Flickr user iznogut
Flickr用户
73年来,R dhus一直是奥胡斯的政治和公民中心。对于世界其他地方来说,它是一项鼓舞人心的建筑作品,也是对地区敏感的设计的一个急需的教训。2006年,丹麦文化佳能(Kulturkanonen)增加了市政厅,以表彰设计的质量和创意,并证明它对其城市所作的贡献。
For seventy-three years, the Rådhus has acted as the political and civic center of Aarhus. For the rest of the world, it has served as an inspirational work of architecture and a much-needed lesson in regionally-sensitive design. In 2006, the city hall was added to the Danish Culture Canon (Kulturkanonen) as a tribute to the quality and originality of the design and a testament to the contributions it has made to its city.
For seventy-three years, the Rådhus has acted as the political and civic center of Aarhus. For the rest of the world, it has served as an inspirational work of architecture and a much-needed lesson in regionally-sensitive design. In 2006, the city hall was added to the Danish Culture Canon (Kulturkanonen) as a tribute to the quality and originality of the design and a testament to the contributions it has made to its city.
建筑师Arne Jacobsen和Erik M ller位置Radhuspladsen 2,8000个面积19380.0平方米1941年项目年照片Flickr用户Seier,Flickr用户iznogut,Flickr用户Vall,Flickr用户nnova,Flickr用户Lalo_Pangue,Flickr用户lafalott分类城镇
Architects Arne Jacobsen and Erik Møller Location Radhuspladsen 2, 8000 Area 19380.0 m2 Project Year 1941 Photographs Flickr user Seier, Flickr user iznogut, Flickr user Vallø, Flickr user nnova, Flickr user lalo_pangue, Flickr user lafalott Category Town & City Hall
Architects Arne Jacobsen and Erik Møller Location Radhuspladsen 2, 8000 Area 19380.0 m2 Project Year 1941 Photographs Flickr user Seier, Flickr user iznogut, Flickr user Vallø, Flickr user nnova, Flickr user lalo_pangue, Flickr user lafalott Category Town & City Hall
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

                    

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